HER

F REVIEWS

f Vor. IV. No. 22.]

OCTOBER, 1891.

[PRIcE Six PENCE.

THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD.

JEOPLE talk sometimes,” said Sir Robert 1 Morier, in the course of one of those bril- gm) liantly eloquent improvisations which give

October 1, 1891.

supremely incredible thing that the Peacemaker of Europe is about to help them to make war on the Power with which he is most anxious to keep on friendly terms, it is not

such a charm to his con- versation, ‘people talk sometimes as if stupidity were a dead, inert thing, powerful only by vis inertia. Never was there a greater mistake. Stupi- dity is one of the most hideously alive of things. It may have been dead once, but nowadays it is, as it were, possessed by a demon of restless energy, and it roams feverishly up and down the world, seek- ing with the most dia- |; bolical ingenuity what |<) mischief it may do.” Of that hideous phenomenon of a Stupidity possessed of a devil, there have been last month illustrations enough and to_ spare, Seldom has there been hatched in so short a space of time so large a brood of fatuous absurdities. Their parentage is not doubtful, nor their source obscure. They are the natural offspring of the hallucination under which the French nation seems to have temporarily passed. Having given themselves up to believe the

WIiIRA

difficult for them to swal- iow any absurdity. Hence the French Press last month literally teemed with the most fantastic: inventions. Now, the Rus- sian vodki may have gone to the head of the Gaul, but that is no reason why sober, sensible people out- side Paris should regard the illusions of Cronstadt- and Portsmouth as other than the hallucination of a highly intoxicated brain. For instance, editors not- in lunatic asylums were not ashamed to print, among other items of in- formation, the startling intelligence that the Rus- sian and French Consuls- General at Cairo had re- ceived instructions to

SIR ROBERT MORIER. (From a photograph by Lombardi and C»,)

present an ultimatum to England demanding the immediate evacuation of Egypt; and then, as if in order to show the impartiality of their lunatic minds, they balanced this with the equally farcical story that England had already begun to make war on Turkey by

* —_—-—— -

324 THE REVIEW invading and annexing the island of Mitylene. Here, surely, we have stupidity under diabolical obsession in its highest manifestation. The hall porters in Downing Street, in a fit of deliriwm tremens, could not have invented more ghastly nonsense, which was, nevertheless, telegraphed all over Europe at the cost of hundreds if not thousands of pounds, and commented upon in hundreds of leading articles. France seems to be temporarily out of her mind, and

that, perhaps, is the reason why these vagaries of a disordered imagination are printed in other than Parisian newspapers. Every one with a grain of common sense could see at a glance that they were the veriest nonsense. But if the French were to announce that a German gunboat had annexed the United States, or that an Italian bicyclist had taken Constantinople, it would probably be necessary to treat the announcements seriously and discuss them as possibilities.

French ussia, it was announced, had prepared Phantasms a plan for seizing Constantinople, the of the Month. Ttalians had wantonly outraged the French flag at Salonica, the Grand Duke of Baden had blustered out threats of war, and so forth and so forth. These are all lies, sheer downright unadulterated falsehoods, without even the shadow of truth to justify their circulation. Yet they have produced, a temporary sense of unrest and of danger. The Stock Exchanges have been affected—possibly the primary reason why these stories were invented—and a general impression has been produced exactly con- trary to that which the actual fact justified. That is the result of what the old Hebrews called filling your belly with the east wind. The Russo-French alliance, so far as such a phantasmal understanding can be called an alliance, which has so entirely upset the mental equilibrium of our excitable neighbours, is not a thing that increases France's capacity for realising her longing for revenge. It has been formed, or rather its semblance has been permitted, in order the more effecti¥ely to prevent any breach of the peace in Europe. /The~French have practically placed themselves ix _the/ ands of the Tzar. He has given them no pledges, he has promised them nothing; but they have deluded themselves into such a belief in the reality of this alliance that they will find it difficult to move a step without the permission of Alexander III. And so long as

Alexander IIT. lives no better arrangement could be desired for the general peace. Henceforth no gun can be fired in Europe except by permission of two men, the Kaiser and the Tzar, both of whom, alike by interest and conviction, are passionate for peace.

-about this concession.”

OF REVIEWS.

The wiseacres who talk about Russian

Russia and P the descents upon Constantinople do not Dardanelles.) ow the A BC of Russian policy. If any one would but for a moment imagine himself in Russia’s place, he would see that, whether Russia’s ultimate object is conquest or pacific development, it must suit her much better to have the Sultan as her hall-porter rather than to have to face all the risks of ejecting him, merely in order to have to do herself what he can do for her much more cheaply and effectively. The recent dis- cussion, which ended in the recognition of the right of Russia to despatch steamers with troops and prisoners from the Black Sea through the Bosphorus to her stations in the Pacific, indicates plainly enough the natural line of Russian policy. Does any human being imagine for a moment that if Englishmen, in-

th to

_-———

BLACK §

th SEA &

stead of Russians, held Odessa and Sebastopol, any human power would prevent us sending our Indian reliefs through the Bosphorus? That narrow water- way through the Turkish capital may be rightly closed to ironclads which are floating fortresses, but it is monstrous to strain that interdict so far as to forbid the egress of Russian transports. The Sultan has agreed to allow the Russians to forward a certain fixed number of soldiers through the Dardanelles to and from Eastern Asia, and as this is nothing more than we should have demanded if we had been in Russia’s shoes, there is no need to make such a pother If it has pleased the Russians, that is not an evil; for it is always well to please a neighbour and an ally when it can be done without injuring yourself. But if the French imagine

WIiIM

Russian do not icy. If nself in Russia’s opment, Sultan to face rder to r much it dis- e right ps and sphorus enough human nen, in-

l, any ndian water- ightly s, but as to sultan artain les to more 2n in other

the ll to done

gine

YLIM

t PR,

THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD.

that it helps them a hundredth part of an inch nearer to the objects of their policy on the Rhine and the Nile, they are deluded indeed. ~

France wants to get us out of Egypt. It is acurious way of attaining that end to afford us a fresh illustration of the extent to which the Sultan is a mere puppet in the hands of the Tzar. The more power Russia has at Constanti- nople, the less chance there is of our weakening our hold upon Egypt. That surely is as plain as the nose upon your face. We have not annexed Egypt, and we do not intend to annex Egypt, neither has Russia seized Constantinople ; but just as we have put the Khedive into our pocket, so the Sultan will go into the pocket of Russia. Russia has no need to trouble to occupy Constantinople. The Sultan every year gravitates steadily to the position of mere agent and factotum of the Tzar. All that Russia has to do is to allow the natural forces to operate unchecked, and ere long the Sultan will be neither more nor less than a Russian agent in a fez. The more clearly the British public recognises that, the less chance there is of any evacuation of Egypt. This has always been admitted in the frankést way by the Tzars. Even Nicholas recognised that England in Egypt was the natural and proper counterpoise to Russian dominance on the Bosphorus.

The scare about the alleged British occupation of Mitylene is useful from one point of view. A British gunboat exercising its crew, landed a fraction of a ship’s com- pany for land drill on the small island of Sigri, with the express permission sought and obtained of the Turkish authorities, and in a few hours took them on board again. That was the infinitesimal grain of truth upon whichso gigantica superstructure of fiction was erected. Nevertheless, the incident may serve a good purpose if it reminds Europe that should Constantinople ever pass into the hands of the Tzar, not a shot will be fired by Britain to prevent it. We have at last emancipated ourselves pretty completely from the superstition that the occupation of the waterway into the cul de sac of the Euxine is a matter of supreme importance to us. If Russia oecupied Constantinople, we might occupy Mitylene, and strengthen our hold on Egypt. Beyond that we should not go. It is an open guestion whether it would be worth while even going as far as to occupy Mitylene. But as no serious objection would be taken by Russia to such a compromise, it might be the easiest way out of the difficulty.

England and Egypt.

The Future of Mitylene.

325

The fall of Kiamil Pasha, the late Grand Vizier, and the appointment of Djevad Pasha as his successor, need not concern us much. The wonder is not that Kiamil has fallen, but that he kept his place so long. The Sultan is

supreme, and whenever the Sultan gets in a particu- larly tight place, he naturally changes his Grand Vizier. At present he is worried about the insur-

The Sultan and his Grand Viziers.

rection in Yemen, where the Arabs refused to be pacified, despite all the telegrams announcing their

complete subjugation, and he is not particularly More-

pleased about the position of affairs in Egypt. over, Kiamil is said to have lent Prince Mohamed _Resched Effendi, the Sultan’s brother, who is heir presumptive, a con- siderable sum _ of money unknown to the Sultan. Abdul Hamid, who is timid and __ suspi- cious, was probably easily persuaded that he had better replace his septuagenarian Arab by a Turk who had not completed his fiftieth year. Whether it is Kiamil or Djevad who executes the orders from the palace, these orders will still be issued by Abdul Hamid, who will of necessity gravitate more and more towards Russia, as she can either help or harm him more than any other Power.

DJEVAD PASHA. The New Grand Vizier of Turkey.

The really important question is, what the Kaiser and the Tzar are thinking. The Tzar has been spending his annual holiday at Fredensburg, and, according to European gossip, has been thinking much of the best way to show that he wished the Cronstadt demonstration not to encourage dreams of war, but to establish a new security for peace. Called home by the sudden death of the Grand Duchess Patl, he had not an opportunity of meeting the Kaiser at Berlin, but there is little doubt as to his views on. the subject. The Kaiser, as his manner is, has been more outspoken. He has been visiting the Emperor of Austria at the Austrian manceuvres, and he has been witnessing the military manceuvres in Bavaria. At Erfurt he made a characteristic speech, blurred with a scmewhat unworthy sneer at Napoleon as a parvenu, which somewhat

The Kaiser

a the Tzar.

326. THE REVIEW OF REVIEWS.

irritated the French; but he at the same time relaxed the irksome passport regulations to Elsass- Lothringen, and at the dinner table is reported to have declared, with much emphasis, that even if he knew a neighbouring power were meditating war . he would not take the responsibility of anticipating attack. If even he could gain an additional month of peace he would take it, believing that the advantages of forestalling your enemy in the present con- dition of Europe would not be worth the sacri- fice of a month of peace. He would prefer to trust in Provi- ~ dence, and leave theresponsibility of making war to be taken by the other. He is entirely of Lord _Derby’s opinion, If war must come sooner or later, for Heaven’s sake let it come later.” M. Ribot and General Caprivi have both made pacific speeches, and so far as the states- men are con- cerned, peace seems more secure than be- fore. The French he contrast between the calm abroad aMgncuvres and the fuss in France is very curious. Carnot. “What do you think of the Franco- Russian Alliance?” said an interviewer to Signor Crispi, to whom the Prime Minister sententiously replied, “‘ Much ado about nothing,’ mere rhetoric and champagne.” Herr Berlepsch, who presided over the Labour Congress in Berlin, has also declared his satisfaction with the prospects of peace. Signor

PRESIDENT CARNOT.

Rudini is equally confident there will be no war.. Only in France there is commotion, and feverish hopes of an early realisation of their aggressive designs. So incapable are some Parisians of dis- playing the calm of conscious strength, that 1,100: men had to be arrested in the streets before Lohengrin could be performed at the Opera House. They deemed it pat- riotic and seemly to avenge Sedan by hooting the music of a Ger- man composer. Russia benefits because her new loan has been taken up = in Paris. It was also issued simul- taneously in Berlin; but when France awakes from her hal- lucination she .is not likely to be more tranquilly content than she: has been hither- to. The chief domestic event in France last month has been military. Presi- dent Carnot has been reviewing’ 100,000 French troops in the Champagne country. The French soldiers marched _ well, and the Presi- dent declared that “the army has once more shown what France may expect from it”; and the country, which followed the mancuvres with passionate interest,” has felt somewhat reassured by reading the reports of the correspondents, whose imaginations were evidently impressed by the human wall, 2,000 yards front and 750 deep,’ which was drawn up upon the parade ground at Vitry. President Carnot did his work well. ‘The Bishop of Chalons hailed him as the

THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD. 327

<‘ Pacifier of Consciences,” in allusion to the under- standing with Rome, and the workmen at Rheims saluted him as the first worker of France. He made half-a-dozen speeches, and achieved the almost im- possible task of satisfying French patriotic fervour

without occasioning any alarm abroad. Military

The

Condition Man cu- wiihe vres have Army. been the order of the day. In Germany, in Thuringia, 60,000 soldiers were in the field, and it was noticed that, although the firing was incessant, the atmosphere __re- mained perfectly clear. In the next war, thanks to smokeless powder, there will be no more smoke than there was at the battle of Hastings. + England also has 4 been having her mancuvres in South - Eastern Hants. General Sir Evelyn Wood

the Times that he never yet witnessed so unsatis- factory and humiliating a display as that presented by the First Army Corps. This is no fault of the officers or of the men, but of the system, which he declares he can prove has utterly broken down :— Our cavalry are without horses, our artillery without guns or train, our infantry battalions are, I firmly be- lieve, becoming worse every year. The militia is a patent and recog- nised fraud, while the yeomanry has ceased to exist as a military force.

So that, it seems, we spend nearly £20,000,000 a year upon a force which is a worse than useless sham! ~ If so, how would it do to cut down the Army esti- - mates by one half, and spend the ten ; lillions rescued ¥, from waste in sup- Be, plying every - crowded Babylon in the land with sufficient open

: A) \ fe...» was in command, Atitwy , spaces and play- and although the SS rote grounds to give officers were 4 » hecx ns our citizens a

zealous and the men obedient, the reports from day ‘to day do not tend to reassure the country as to the efficiency of its second line of de- fence. The pro- portion of men who fell out in the march was exces- sive, and it was asserted that if the majority of the troops had been in heavy marching order they would mever have reached the rendezvous at all. Mr. Arnold Forster, whose admirable Citizen Reader” should be a text-book in every school, and who rendered yeoman service to the country by the alarm which he raised seven years ago about the navy, declares in

Bs 7 iN

SIR EVELYN WOOD, V.C. (From a photograph by Messrs, Frad lieand Young.) army ¢

chance of grow- ing up healthy enough to serve as soldiers when we develop a War Office capable of organising an

The news from China grows more and more disquieting. At the beginning of Septem- ber the riotous anti-foreign movement, which had cost so many valuable lives at Wuhu and other towns in the Yang-tse-Kiang Valley, burst out afresh at Ichang, a thousand miles up the great river, beyond which steamers do not ply. All the property of the English and foreign merchants has

The Trouble in China.

328 THE REVIEW OF REVIEWS.

been destroyed by an organised outbreak of Hunan soldiers. The telegrams seem to point to a probable

From Judy. {September 2, 1891,

UNMANAGEABLE.

“Can't manage him, eh? Then you'd better tie him up or muzzle him, or we'll know the reason why.”

general rising along the Yang-tse, directed impartially against all foreigners, but specially against the

missionaries. How serious this may become a glance at the accompanying map will show. The whole country is dotted with missionaries, and every treaty If the thousand miles of valley blaze up in fanatical savagery, the

port contains some merchants.

Emperor of China may have urgent need for another Gordon to rescue him from another ‘Laiping rebellion. Rumours assert that the insurrectionary movement is fomented by the Emperor’s mother, and that Li Hung Chung is also hoping to gain an advan- tage by fishing in troubled waters. The two theories, apparently conflicting, that the anti-European move- ment is at once instigated by the Government and set on foot by a party which only uses hostility to foreigners as a pretext to mask its designs against the dynasty, may be reconciled if we suppose that the Government sees some advantage in secretly favour- ing a movement which, although ultimately aimed at the dynasty, may, in the meantime, help the dynasty against the foreigner. The Chinese are adepts in the art of facing both ways, and it may be that in the Yang-tse valley “the spur, insidiously applied, provokes the caper which it seems to chide.” It is a very serious business, however. Gunboats are already in motion, troops are being despatched to protect life and property, and many things are more improbable than the temporary estab- lishment of a European naval protectorate of the Chinese treaty ports until such time as the new Gordon, whoever he may be, makes the Chinese Emperor once more master in his own house.

41D 1-00 N

“SE PTENTAd THE VALLEY OF THE YANG-TSE-KIANG..

+ Wherever the Map is marked © it indicates a Catholic Mission Station.

The | an Missi comy missi Chri The abdu out, extrs devo upon has decla

issue Chri ‘been to bs to m on ¢ weak

Ru: Centr

once that tion bord ‘Tzar pro- our Fren hear the P istan and Russ but unio ibe s

lance vhole reaty

sand , the other ping nary and van- ies, ove- and iy to inst ) the our- d at asty the the lied, It are ‘hed ings tab- the new 1ese

XUM

THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD.

One curious consequence of the present agitation against the Europeans is, that the Chinese Government itself has been compelled to vindicate the character of the Christian missionaries. The anti-foreign placards accuse the Christians of immorality, dishonesty, and murder The favourite charge is that women are procured to abduct children, whose eyes and intestines are taken out, and whose heart and kidneys are cut out. This extraordinary accusation, which implies that the devoted missionaries of the Cross are mere variants upon Jack the Ripper, has had one good result. It has elicited from the Tsung-li-Yamen a direct declaration, embodied in the official memorial to the Emperor,~that the missionaries are an element of good in the land and not of evil. This is the formal finding of the Imperial Ministry, who, as usual, style themselves “the memorialists ;—

The memorialists find that the religion of the great West persuades people to follow the paths of virtue. It has been propagated in all the western countries for many years. The hospitals for the sick and asylums for infants are all good works. Of late years in all the places in the different provinces visited by calamities there were many missionaries who contributed large sums and helped to alleviate the sufferings of the people. Their love to do good and their generosity in giving are cer- tainly commendable.

‘On the strength of this memorial the Emperor issued an edict which favours the propagation of the Christian faith more than any previous edict that has been issued from the Chinese throne. It is earnestly to be hoped that the Chinese Government may be able to maintain order. No policy could be more fatuous on our part than to adopt any course that would weaken its authority over its own people.

After several years of calm, there are indications that Russian generals on the Central Asiatic frontier are beginning once more to feel their feet. It is not improbable that the most mischief that will result from the fic- tion of the Russo-French en“ente will be felt on the border line between the Caspian and Thibet. The ‘Tzar may be as pacific as he pleases, but.his prancing pro-consuls in Central Asia can hardly fail to feel en- couraged to play tricks by the exhilaration of the French champagne. Hence it is not surprising to hear of Russian exploring parties in the Pamir, of the Afghan Ameer having decided to open Afghan- ‘istan to free commercial intercourse with Russia, and even of a Russian protectorate of Persia. Russia and Persia, it is reported, have all but agreed to a commercial diplomatic union, by virtue of which other Powers will be shut out from commercial relations with Persia,

The Chinese and the Missionaries.

Russia in Central Asia.

ant

329

and that Persia’s diplomatic business will always be discharged by the Russian Ambassadors. The story is not very credible; but of course Persia is, to all intents and purposes, in Russia’s pocket already, and the Tzar may button up his pocket at any time. The exclusive commercial policy of Russia will have the effect in the long run of making every commercial nation the ally of England—the only Power whose conquests always extend the area of neutral trade. The news from Southern Russia leaves no doubt as to the appalling nature of the catastrophe which has befallen the un- fortunate Muscovite peasantry.’ Owing to the faiiure of the crops, thirty-three millions of Europeans are in actual and imminent danger of perishing outright from starvation. We are familiar with such famines in India. It is the first time in our memory that a European nation has been confronted with so terrible a menace. The region which is smitten with death used to be the granary of Europe. The Russian Government will do, and is doing, its cumbrous best, but millions will perish before the spring. In presence of so colossal a calamity, it is to be hoped London will set the civilised world an example of the sympathy of human brotherhood by raising a substantial relief fund for the perish- ing millions of Southern Russia. The fund itself will not save the doomed myriads. It will at best only snatch a few thousands from the grave. But it will be a brotherly thing that will help to wipe out the bitter memories of evil times when mistaken policy and unscrupulous intrigue arrayed against each other the nations whose amity is the in- dispensable condition of Asiatic peace. The Rouma- OD page 330 is a portrait of the Crown nian Prince of Roumania,for love of whom Mlle. Love Story: Vacaresco has nearly broken her heart. Carmen Sylva nearly lost her life in grieving over the hapless lovers, and for some little time it seemed as if the correspondents were preparing us for the abdication of the King of Roumania. “The course of true love never does run smooth,” but it seems as if it were destined to play the very mischief with the politics of Eastern Europe. Master Cupid has sacri- ficed the heir to the Austrian throne, deposed the King and exiled the Queen of Servia, and all last month it seemed asif he might bring about a general war by vacating the throne of Roumania. It was announced that a match had just been arranged between the little boy King of Servia and Princess Helen of Montenegro, but this also seems to have been marred by the untoward fate which seems to preside over the marriages of the Princes of the East.

The Famine in Russia.

THE REVIEW

THE CROWN PRINCE OF ROUMANIA.

While “2 the East millions are starving

_ Floods for want of rain, our crops are spoiled by n Spain. ; :

an incessant downpour which has made a

shower-bath of thesummer. In Spain matters have

been far worse. An unprecedented deluge converted

the rivers which at this season are often mere

8.K. SPAIN, SHOWING THE DISTRICT SUBMERGED.

OF REVIEWS.

rivulets into raging torrents, which inunuated the valleys, washed away the railways, made 100,000 persons homeless, and drowned outright nearly a thousand persons in Consuegra alone. The- devastation caused by the floods in the valley of the Armaquillo, where the mud-walled houses dissolved. like sugar in the twenty feet of water beneath which they were submerged, struck horror into the heart of the Spanish nation, which made itself felt as far as New York. But the destruction of life and property in Spain is but a fleabite compared with the silent horror of the Russian famine. We are such creatures of the senses that the sensational drowning of a hand- ful of men in dramatic circumstances affects us more: than the wasting away of millions in the agonies of starvation.

The Suicide ~ triumph of the Constitutional party of In Chili is now complete, All armed re- Balmaceda. sistance ceased with the occupation of Valparaiso, and the last finishing touch was given to the successs of the Congressionalists by the suicide of the late President Balmaceda. It would, no doubt,, have been better if he had been taken, tried, and hanged ; but it is seldom that the Charles Stuarts. make a judicially appropriate ending. Balmaceda’s. suicide simplified matters, and Chili, it is to be hoped,.

will now settle down into peace and quiet. The Germans, last month, had another un-

The German . : Reverse in pleasant experience of the colonial troubles. Africa. with which we are so familiar. Their section of East Africa seems to be in a ferment. An insurrection is said to have broken out among the Wadigos, who have the usual human, ignorant impatience, and who reply by riots to the edict taxing palm kernels. The Arabs on the coast are restless,, and the situation is critical. All this reads ugly, following as it does hard on the heels of the news of the destruction of Lieutenant Zalewski’s expedition in the Wahehé country. Lieut. Zalewski started for Kilwa on June 22nd, and marched inland north of the Rufiji to Mpapwa. The Wahehé Chief Taramakeng robbed thirty of the members of the expedition at the last-named place, whereupon Lieut. Zalewski bombarded and stormed his fortress and: then began a punitive march into the Wahehé country. He had with him five German officers, seven non-com- missioned officers, two cannon, two Maxim guns, and. 350 native troops. The expedition was very carefully equipped, armed with Mauserrifles, and the blacks were- the best fighting material procurable. But on August 17th, as they were forcing their way through the bush at a place called Thela, south of the Ruhaha river, they were attacked in force by the Wahehés,.

east aaa

ed de-

east aaa

THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD:

who are of the race of Zulus, and who have guns and ammunition from the Portuguese. After a brief but hopeless resistance, Lieut. Zalewski, with five officers and five non-commissioned officers, were killed, his

4 R< 3 36 6 oat G* ve, M A N Ny Orig ~ ' Panes MPAPAYA -” oe o)

| j

Scole emt a >

"4 : tLake Nyasa

cannon and Maxims captured, and three hundred of this men were speared or shot. On September the 18th, two officers, two non-commissioned officers, and sixty-five men, the sole survivors of the ill-fated expedition, arrived at Bagamoyo. Two Little L2¢ Pope has received the first contingent Sermons by of 20,000 working men who, under the the Pope. Jeadership of Cardinal Langenieux, M. Harmel, and the Comte de Mun, have enjoyed a pleasure trip to Rome with the comforting adjuncts of a quasi- religious pilgrimage. To them he addressed a good little sermon, in which he exhorted them to be <liligent and docile, and to avoid perverse men, especially when, as Socialists, they try to overthrow social order. “On your return to your beautiful country, say that the heart of the Pope is ever with the heavy-laden and the suffering.” The Comte de Mun saluted the great workman, Leo XITI.”; and it is to be hoped that the Government will take due note of the Pope’s declaration that “it is imperative to act in all directions without losing precious time in barren discussions.” Besides thus preaching to the French workmen, the Pope has addressed a letter to the German and Austrian bishops, in which he lifts up his voice on high and denounces duelling. Both divine .and human laws forbid “that a man should be wounded or killed, except when the interest of all is concerned, or itis done in necessary defence.” “The savage «custom of duelling,” it is to be feared, will survive the Pontifical anathema, which is but a renewal of the testimony which the Church has consistently borne for many centuries against this odd survival of the old barbaric custom of trial by ordeal of battle. While the Pope is preaching, the work- ing men are acting; and in this country, at least, they seem likely to do more for themselves than any number of Papal Encyclicals

The Work- mmnen at Work.

‘331

can do for them. At the Trade Union Congress at Newcastle, over which Mr. Burt presided—filling the chair in a fashion which extorted the enthusiastic encomiums of his opponents—a resolution was passed urging the united trades. of the country to seize every opportunity to select, nominate, and return Labour re- presentatives, “independent of party politics.” The last phrase was added as an amendment by 258 votes to 208. Its significance has been emphasized by Mr. Tillet’s acceptance of an invitation to cortest one of the Bradford seats in opposition to both Liberals and

MR. THOMAS BURT, M.P. (From a photograph by : radelle and Young.)

Conservatives. It remains to be seen whether this attempt to form a strong and vigorous Labour party will succeed. What seems more certain is that the hope of holding together the old and the new Unionists in one Congress is diminishing. The Eight Hours Legal Day men outnumbered the men of the old school, and a split on the question of the reconstitution of the Congress seems not unlikely.

In home politics little has been doing. It took Lord Salisbury nearly three weeks to discover that Sir James Fergusson, who has been his Under Secretary at the Foreign Office since 1886, had the best claim to be put in Mr.

English Politics.

332 THE REVIEW Raikes’s post. The new Postmaster-General has the business to learn, and it is to be feared that the net result of the change will be that the whole subject of penny postagethroughout the English-speaking world, and halfpenny postage for all periodical publications in Great Britain, will be held over until the next Administration. Sir James Fergusson’s re-election was hotly opposed by the Liberals of North-East Manchester, who were for the third time represented by Mr. C. P. Scott, of the Manchester Guardian. Mr. Scott is; like his paper, solid, reliable, and well- informed, but a trifle slow and somewhat woolly in the texture of his thought. Note

ate, ee

SIR JAMES FERGUSSON. Postmaster-General.

(From a phitograph by Russell and Son.)

in this connection that the Tynemouth Liberals have selected as their candidate Mr. James Annand, of the Newcastle Leader, who for twenty years past has, as a journalist, instructed in politics those who are now asking. him to represent them in Parliament. Before the twentieth century arrives it will be as much a matter of course for every great newspaper to have a representative in Parliament as at the begin- ning of the nineteenth it was for the eldest son of a great noble to occupy the family seat for the rotten borough which formed an indispensable part of the patrimonial inheritance.

Last month the newspapers had it all their own way, and the only new topics for discussion were the Daily Chronicle's Mahatmas and the Daily News’ series of letters on “Life in the Villages.” The latter attracted wide- spread attention, and formed the staple topic for the three political speeches of September. Mr. Morley, at Cambridge, spoke with much feeling and force upon the necessity of doing something to vivify the dull

Life in the Villages.

OF REVIEWS.

torpor of bucolic existence; Sir Michael Hicks- Beach dealt with the same subject from his own stand- point in the West-country; and Sir W. Harcourt, as his. manner is, included it among the other ingredients of his omnium-gatherum, rollicking discourse in Lanca- shire. As yet the other newspapers in, London at least, refuse to discuss the question, for the trumpery reason that it was started by one of themselves. The usages of the London press in these matters are quite idiotic. While the politicians are discussing matters, could not the various religious bodies, established and non-established, agree to unite forces in order to establish a council in every parish for the purpose of working together to mend matters? A competent public-spirited parish council, which had cast out the twin devils of clerical intolerance and dissenting jealousy, might do a great deal to secure the removal of the deadly dulness which broods over evening in the village. It.is to be feared, however, that this is but a vain dream. forgotten its Maker that the work will have to be taken in hand by politicians. The promised parish council will come by the law, not by the gospel. In Ireland also the only event of import- 2s peek ance has been journalistic. Young Mr. Journal.” Dwyer Gray—he is said to be only one- and-twenty—has succeeded at last in making up his mind on the vexed question of Mr. Parnell. Asa consequence, the Freeman's Journal has now ceased to advocate the claims of the fallen chief, and Mr. Parnell’s caricaturists in United Ireland exhaust their bitterness in caricaturing Mr. Gray as if he were an infant of twelve months. Con- sidering that Mr. Parnell fought and won the battle of the Land League largely by utilising the zeal and energy of young men, this kind of satire is very harmless. Even now the only gleam of ope that has relieved the gloom of the Parnellite horizon has come from the attempt—the gallant but futile attempt—of Mr. John O'Leary to constitute a Young Ireland League, which, to judge by the speeches at the preliminary convention, is to be mainly directed against the Catholic Church. The leaders of the Irish Home Rulers have thrown away the scabbard and have now proclaimed their determination to do their best to drive every Par- nellite out of Parliament. They announced at the mid-monthly meeting of the National Federation that they have formally espoused the cause of the evicted tenants, and that a convention is to be held in every county to raise funds for the evicted and to prepare for the General Eiection. ‘They are further to appeal to Irishmen all round the world for help—which they

The Church of God has so far .

disappe: Rule; : his resis to his ¢ The Librari: in Coun ism is 1 the mee ham in Americ Contine too man “he has has cru: of volur World librariaz are smal be reco;

grey ma

eS VS Y Se

a ee ee

= ae

THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD. 333

may get on one condition, and on one condition only. American money will flow again the day after the Irish are re-united, that is to say, after Mr. Parnell

MR. DWYER GRAY. (From a photograph by Falk, Melbourne.)

disappears. He has been the Balmaceda of Home Rule; and, although no one would suggest suicide, his resignation is the only service he can now render to his country.

‘en Librarianism, if we may coin a word, is Librarians being naturalised amongst us. In in Council. 4 merica the art and science of Librarian-

ism is much more studied than it is here. But the meeting of the Librarians’ Association at Notting- ham in September shows that we are getting on. America leads the world, England follows, the Continent lags behind. One difficulty is that we have