HANDBOUND AT THE

LNIM.RSITY OF TORONTO PRESS

THE CAMBRIDGE HISTORY OF INDIA

f/^-y

IN SIX VOLUMES VOLUME VI

The Indian Empire

1858-1918

LONDON

Cambridge University Press

FETTEB LANE

NEW YOBK TORONTO BOMBAY CALCUTTA MADRAS

Macmillan

TOKYO

Maruzen Company Ltd All rights reserved

^ THE

/ CAMBEIDGE

HISTOKY OF INDIA

VOLUME VI

The Indian Empire

18587-1918

With chapters on the development of Administration 1818-1858

EDITED BY

H. H. DODWELL, M.A.

PROFESSOR OF THE HISTORY AND CULTURE OF THE BRITISH DOMINIONS IN ASIA. IN THE UNIVERSITY OF LONDON

b( CAMBRIDGE

AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS 1932

42,(0

v.fe

This volume can ako be obtained as Volume V of The Cambridge History of the British Empire

PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN

INTRODUCTION

XHE previous volume narrated the expansion of British power down to the conquest of the Panjab and the Second Burmese War, and the development of the administrative system down to 1 8 1 8 under the guidance of Cornwallis in Bengal and of Munro in Madras. It thus displayed the expansion of British India almost to its modern limits, but dealt only with the earliest British attempts to build up a workable method of government. The present volume, in the first place, carries this latter development from 1818 down to the outbreak of the Indian Mutiny. This period, in which the supremacy of the East India Company was virtually uncontested, displayed great activity and produced notable reforms. The belief that the Company's govern- ment was obscurantist or reactionary lacks foundation. Without exception the governors-general took high views of their obHgations, while many of the Company's servants regarded themselves as pre- eminently the servants of India. Under them the administrative system took its final shape, with many local variations necessitated by variations in the land tenures of the British provinces; and this new system, in strong contrast with the system originally introduced by Cornwallis, was based upon the plan of securing the fullest and most detailed knowledge of social and economic conditions. In almost every province district administration embraced large elements of personal government; and many collectors of the period were till recent times remembered with reverence in the districts which they had ruled. As has been well said, had the Company's government perished in the Mutiny, the later period of its rule would have been long remembered as a golden age. But the development of good district government was by no means the sole achievement of that generation. Sati and thagi were suppressed, and female infanticide greatly lessened, while the introduction of the railway and the tele- graph, the extension of irrigation, the conservation of forests, the spread of missionary activity and the growth of western education brought India into contact of a new and fruitful kind with the external world.

India's first answer to these beneficent changes was the Mutiny. In ultimate analysis that movement was a Brahman reaction against

vi INTRODUCTION

influences which, given free play, would revolutionise the mental, moral, and social condition of the country. It acted through the sepoy army because that was the only organised body through which Brahman sentiment could express itself; it acted through the Bengal section of the sepoy troops because that alone included numerous Brahmans and because its discipline was far more relaxed than that of either the Madras or the Bombay sepoys. But this weapon was broken by the very use to which it was put. The sepoys lost coherence with the loss of their English officers. With the exception of Tantia Topi no Indian leader of note emerged. Except in Oudh the sepoys found no popular support. India indeed still had no common con- sciousness. It was disunited, cloven into numberless mutually indif- ferent or even hostile sections by caste, creed and distance, just as it had always been. Therefore the force of the Mutiny was broken before help arrived from England; and when help at last came, the Mutiny was quickly crushed. If on the one hand it bequeathed to the survivors heart-breaking memories of slaughtered women, of broken trust, of wholesale executions, on the othertiie fact of its.^1^)- pression exposed India to the more intense aBplicajtion-^f-tbose

westemisijog^ forces which had provoked its ^ccurreiice._ The

Company vanished, but the queen's government took its place_and ^'^pj^y^^^^^g^ ^^ control exercised from London. Foreign policy, almost completely limited to the protection of India from the Russian menace, was more closely than ever knit up with European poUtics. And the centre of interest tended to shift from external policy_Jij_^ntemar~Hevelopinent. India reached a "higher degree union thaiiinia3~5ver before" known. Under the pressure of poUtical fact the Indian states ceased to be the dependent but external allies of 1858 and became integrsd parts of a new empire of India. At the same time a new social phenomenon emerged. The spread of western education in the cities of India and the growing demand for administrative and professional services created a new class of society educated in western knowledge and possessed of professional qualifications. This new class was essentially urban and almost exclusively Brahman. In English it possessed a common vehicle of thought. Railways and telegraphs brought the cities of India into new and intimate relations. The rise of an Indian press gave voice to common interests and aspirations. Hcjiee^merged^ new sense of unity, limited to a single class and not as yet touching

INTRODUCTION vii

rural India, but diffused throughout every city of the land. The British government had in fact created the conditions under which nationalist sentiment could arise. The purposes contemplated from afar by Company's servants like Thomas Munro were being realised by the servants of the crown.

This poHtical was accompanied by a great economic development. Indian finance was handled by a succession of remarkably able men with prudence and foresight. Debt was incurred mainly for productive works which increased the wealth of the country in a degree incom- parably greater than their cost. Irrigation, railways, agricultural improvements, co-operative credit, all helped to create an India in which wealth was more widely diffused than it had been for many centuries, and permitted the development of a famine policy which gradually ended that great scourge of humanity.

Such were two of the three main developments which mark out the two generations which followed the Indian Mutiny. The third consisted of a series of efibrts, still actively continuing, to transform into an organic state the inorganic des^otimi_ which the crown had mheiiteSTlrom the Company, and the Company^jfrom the former Indian governments^ It was the greatest political experiment ever attempted. It had no precedent. The peoples of Asia had created great civilisations, and formed themselves into strong, well-knit and durable social groups, but their political organisation had seldom risen above the primitive community of the village. In this respect the history of the Aryan invaders of India is most instructive. They seem to have carried with them the same political gifts as their brethren displayed in classical Greece and Rome. They belonged to the stock which created the science and the art of politics. At the dawn of history they dimly appear in India organised in modes which might well have developed into an active political life. But their tribal institutions and self-governing townships withered and decayed under the Indian sun. The kings and emperors who arose after them were ever limited in their action by social and religious influences but never shared their power with political institutions. Therefore when the rising middle class of Indians began to demand political reform, and when the British government began to consider how best to give effect to this demand, neither side could turn for guidance to oriental political experience and were compelled to base their plans on the aHen ideas of the west. Hence the purely BritishJorgL-takeir

viii INTRODUCTION

alike by the li^n^^rid^ of ^^^'^ TnrH^n^National Congress and the pro^jsions^ thcvarious statutes designed to change the nature of goUticaLpOii^erjnjiidiaL^.

Such is the subject-matter of the following pages. It presses closely

on the events of to-day.

Incedis p>er ignes Suppositos cineri doloso.

Perhaps the more accurate and sober the statement, the less likely it is to win general approval. But the present work may at least claim to gather together in a single volume not only a wealth of personal knowledge and experience but also the information scattered through a multitude of blue-books, of statutes, of acts of the Indian legis- latures; to present the views of poUcy uttered both by governors- general and secretaries of state and by Indian poUtical leaders; above all at the present moment it aspires to show clearly and firmly the historical background, without some knowledge of which poUtical decisions become matters of mere sentiment and chance.

H. H. D. September 1932

TABLE OF CONTENTS ADMINISTRATIVE DEVELOPMENT, 1818-1858

CHAPTER I

IMPERIAL LEGISLATION AND THE SUPERIOR GOVERNMENTS, 1818-1857

By H. H. DoDWELL, MA., Professor of the history and culture of the British dominions in Asia in the University of London.

PAGE

The Whig tradition i

TheActofi8i3 i

The reforms of 1833 3

Legal anomaHes 5

Legislative powers 5

The law member 7

The law comimissions 7

The government of Bengal 8

Recruitment of the covenanted service 9

The position of Indians 10

Slavery 11

Relations of the Company and the board 12

Recall of the governor-general 13

Decay of the Company's position 15

The Act of 1853 16

Competitive examinations i6

Reform of the legislature . . 17

The effects of competitive examinations 19

CHAPTER II

DISTRICT ADMINISTRATION IN BENGAL, 1818-1858

By Sir H. Verney Lovett, K.G.S.L, late Reader in Indian History in the University of Oxford.

Limits of the presidency 20

Neglect of the local problems of Bengal 21

Appointment of a lieutenant-governor 22

Regulation system 22

District organisation 24

Police organisation 26

The magistrate-and-coUector 28

Effects of the Permanent Settlement 30

Communications 31

Thagi 33

Dacoity 34

Primitive tribes 35

Mutiny in Bengal 35

c H I VI b

X CONTENTS

CHAPTER III

DISTRICT ADMINISTRATION IN MADRAS, 1818-1857

By A. BuTTERWORTH, G.S.I., formerly Chief Secretary to the Government of Madras.

PAGE

Annexation of Kumool 38

Troubles in Canara 38

Mopla rebellions 38

Rebellions in the Gircars 39

Human sacrifice 40

Slavery 40

Government of the presidency 41

District organisation 42

Courts of law 42

Land-revenue system 44

Revenue survey 49

Malabar tenures 49

Inam tenures 50

Irrigation . 51

District police 52

Mohatarfa 52

Salt revenue 53

Abkari 54

Reorganisation of the police 55

Jails 56

Civil surgeons 57

CHAPTER IV

DISTRICT ADMINISTRATION IN BOMBAY, 1818-1857

By the late S. M. Edwardes, C.S.L, C.V.O.

Growth of the presidency 58

Early organisation 60

The mamlatdar 61

Taxation 62

Administration of justice 63

Reforms of 1830 67

Bombay legislation 67

Education 68

Police system 69

Administration of Sind 71

Jails 73

Public works and other departments 74

CONTENTS xi

CHAPTER V

DISTRICT ADMINISTRATION IN THE UNITED

PROVINCES, CENTRAL PROVINCES, AND

THE PANJAB, 1818-1857

By Sir Patrick Fag an, K.G.I.E.

PAGE

Formation of the United Provinces, etc 75

The regulation system 76

Its application 77

Early police system 78

Criminal law 79

The land-revenue settlement . 80

The village community 82

Tenant-right . 83

Irrigation 84

Famines 84

Abkari 86

Municipalities 86

The non-regulation system 87

Panjab administration under Ranjit Singh 88

The Board of Administration 90

Early British administration in the Panjab 91

Public works 92

John Lawrence's administration 93

CHAPTER VI

EDUCATION AND MISSIONS TO 1858

By Sir H. Verney Lovett, K.C.S.I.

Warren Hastings's policy . . 95

Charles Grant's Observations 97

The Serampur Mission . . . . . . . . . . 98

David Hare 99

Indigenous schools in Bengal 100

The discussions of 1813 102

Foundation of the Vidyalaya 104

Ram Mohan Roy's petition . . . . 105

The Committee of Public Instruction , 106

The orientalist controversy 107

Elphinstone's efforts in Bombay 107

Munro's Madras plan 108

Alexander Duff's views 109

Macaulay's minute . .111

Orientalist opposition 112

Adam's reports 114

The Council of Education 115

Thomason's scheme in the North-Western Provinces 116

Slowness of progress 117

The dispatch of 1854 118

b-2

xii CONTENTS

CHAPTER VII

SOCIAL POLICY TO 1858

By Sir H. Verney Lovett, K.C.S.b

PAGE

The Company*s chaplains 121

Danish missionaries 121

Policy of religious toleration 122

Activity of Protestant missions 123

Ecclesiastical establishments 124

Disabilities of Indian Christians 125

Religious festivals and temple endowments . 1 25

Slavery 127

Sacrifice of children at Sagar Island 1 28

Female infanticide 1 29

The question of sati 131

Protests against permission 133

Carey's description 134

The nizamat adalat's report 1 35

The rules of 1812-1815 . . 135

Ewer's remonstrance 137

Other protests 139

Company's orders of 1823 ^39

Ram Mohan Roy's petition 140

Bentinck resolves to prohibit sati 140

CHAPTER VIII

THE COMPANY'S MARINE

By the late S. M. Edwardes, C.S.I., G.V.O.

The Surat squadron 144

Early wars with Gheria 144

The Bombay dockyard 145

Growth of the Marine, 1740-72 146

Capture of the /Janj^CT' 147

Co-operation with Hughes 147

Organisation of the Marine 147

Marine regulations 148

Services in the Persian Gulf and elsewhere 149

The Indian Marine 150

Later developments 151

Marine surveys 151

CONTENTS xiii

CHAPTER IX

THE ARMIES OF THE EAST INDIA COMPANY

By Lt.-Col. Sir Wolesley Haig, K.C.I.E., C.S.I., G.M.G., G.B.E., M.A., Lecturer in Persian, in the School of Oriental Studies, in the University of London.

PAGE

Early garrisons 153

Origin of sepoys 153

Growth of the presidency armies 154

Recruitment of European officers 157

Recruitment of sepoys 158

The reorganisation of 1 796 159

Officers' pay 160

Cadets i6i

Military life 161

Reorganisation of 1824 162

The Barrackpore mutiny 162

European and officers' mutinies 162

The Vellore mutiny 163

The Madras officers' mutiny 163

Local and irregular units 165

Demoralisation of the Bengal army 1 65

CHAPTER X

THE MUTINY

By T. Rice Holmes, M.A., Litt.D.

Revenue causes of discontent 167

Nana Sahib's pension 167

Dalhousie's annexations 168

Railway and telegraph 169

The attitude of the people 169

The Bengal army 171

The general service order 1 72

Proselytising officers 173

The greased cartridges 1 73

Mutiny of the 1 9th and 34th Native Infantry 1 74

Mutiny at Meerut 175

Mutiny at Delhi 177

Indecision of the authorities 177

The position at Agra 178

VAttitude of the civil population 1 79

Conduct of the Indian princes . . 1 79

Tayler at Patna 180

Neill at Benares 181

Allahabad 182

Wheeler at Cawnpore 183

The Cawnpore massacres 183

Lawrence at Lucknow 184

Havelock's campaign 187

xiv CONTENTS

PAGE

Outram joins Havelock 189

Lucknow relieved 190

John Lawrence in the Panjab 190

Siege of Delhi 192

Proposed cession of PeshavNTir 193

Nicholson's march 194

The storm of Delhi 195

Sir Colin Campbell's march to Lucknow 196

Tantia Topi 198

The recovery of Lucknow 199

Canning's proclamation 200

Kunwar Singh 200

Position in Bombay 200

Mutiny in Central India 201

Sir Hugh Rose's campaign 202

Reduction of the Rohilkhand . . . 203

^ The Mutiny not organised 204

Dalhousie unjustly blamed 205

ADMINISTRATIVE DEVELOPMENT, 1858-1918

CHAPTER XI

THE HOME GOVERNMENT, 1858-1918

By Sir H. Verney Lovett, K.G.S.I.

The East India Company's petition 206

Parliamentary bills 207

The Act of 1858 208

The debates 210

The Council of India 212

The Amendment Act of 1869 214

. Lord Salisbury as secretary of state 214

^ General policy of the India Office 215

I Attitude of parliament 216

/ Morley and the Council of India 217

I Lord Crewe's proposed reforms 218

I The changes of 1 9 1 1 . . . 219

I The Mesop>otamia Commission 220

VMontagu's visit to India 222

^The functions of parliament 222

The functions of the crown 225

CHAPTER XII

THE INDIAN GOVERNMENTS, 1858-1918

By Sir H. Verney Lovett, K.C.S.I.

/

The governor-general 226

Canmng's reforms 226

The Councils Act of 1 86 1 228

The portfolio system 229

CONTENTS XY

PAGE

Subsequent changes in the governor-general's council . . . .230

Powers of the governor-general 231

The legislative council of 1853 233

Inclusion of Indian members 234

Other changes in the legislature 235

The home government's control of legislation .237

The Morley-Minto reforms 238

The provincial governments 238

Relations between the central and provincial governments . . . 240

CHAPTER XIII

DISTRICT ADMINISTRATION IN BENGAL, 1858-1918

By Sir H. Verney Lovett, K.C.S.I.

Changes in the size of the province 245

Position of the magistrate-and-collector 245

Growth of Calcutta 246

Honorary magistrates 246

Courts of law 247

Neglect of Eastern Bengal 247

Communications in the province 248

Tenancy legislation 249

The bhadralok 251

Trade and industry 251

Political agitation and crime . 252

The Bengal District Administration Committee 253

CHAPTER XIV

DISTRICT ADMINISTRATION IN BOMBAY, 1858-1918

By the late S. M. Edwardes, C.S.I. , C.V.O.

Subordinate states in Kathiawar, etc 255

Relations with border states 256

The survey settlement 256

Land-revenue in Sind 257

The presidency government 257

Judicial organisation 259

Revenue administration 261

Port trusts 263

Public works 263

Forests . 264

Education 264

Agriculture 265

Miscellaneous departments 266

xvi CONTENTS

CHAPTER XV DISTRICT ADMINISTRATION IN MADRAS, 1858-1918

By A. BUTTERWORTH, C.S.I.

PAGE

Madras during the Mutiny 267

Tidal wave at Masulipatam 267

The Guntur famine 267

Moplah rebellions 268

Troubles in the Circars 268

The Shanar riots 269

Political agitation and crime 270

Judicial organisation 270

Revenue settlement 271

Agriculture 272

Forests 272

Local self-government 273

Communications in the province ... 274

Provincial finance 275

CHAPTER XVI

DISTRICT ADMINISTRATION IN THE UNITED

PROVINCES, CENTRAL PROVINCES, AND

THE PANJAB, 1858-1918

By Sir Patrick Fagan, K.C.I.E.

Crime and police 276

Judicial organisation 277

Scheduled districts 278

Land-revenue administration 278

Tenant-right 281

Record of rights 282

Irrigation 283

Famines 285

Forests 286

Excise 287

Agricultural development 289

Co-operative credit 290

Local self-government 291

The district officer 292

CHAPTER XVII

THE DEVELOPMENT OF FAMINE POLICY

By Sir H. Verney Lovett, K.C.S.I.

The rainfall 294

Means of irrigation 295

Early famines in India 296

The Orissa famine 298

The Bihar famine 300

CONTENTS xvii

PAGE

The famine of 1876-8 300

The Strachey Commission 301

The Famine Code 304

Methods of rehef 305

The famine of 1896-7 . 306

The famine of 1 900 307

The MacDonnell Commission 309

The famine of 1907-8 309

The growth of resistance to famine conditions 310

The scarcity ofi9i8 311

CHAPTER XVIII

THE FINANCES OF INDIA, 1858-1918

By H. R. C. Hailey, CLE.

Reorganisation after the Mutiny 314

The revenues 315

Land revenues 315

Opium 316

Salt 316

Customs 316

Miscellaneous 317

Income-tax 317

Public works and irrigation finance 318

Financial decentralisation . . -SiQ

Currency and the fall in silver 320

The course of finance, 1873-93 321

Currency reform 322

The gold exchange standard 323

General course of finance, after 1893 325

Revenues, 191 3-14 . . 327

Public debt 327

Development of the currency system 328

War finance 330

CHAPTER XIX

THE GROWTH OF EDUCATIONAL POLICY, 1858-1918

By Sir H. Verney Lovett, K.C.S.I.

Position after the Mutiny 335

The Departments of Public Instruction . _ 336

The universities 336

The schools 338

General position in 1865-6 339

Progress of western influences . . .341

Obstacles to the spread of rural education . . . . . . . 342

The Aligarh College 344

Female education 345

Chiefs' colleges 345

The Hunter Commission 346

The educational services 348

New universities 348

f

xviU CONTENTS

PAGE

Gur2on*s reforms 349

The Universities Act of 1904 351

The rise of political agitation 352

Problems of the future 355

CHAPTER XX

THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SERVICES, 1858-1918

By Sir H. Verney Lovett, K.G.S.I.

The Indian Civil Service 357

Recruitment 358

Indian competition 359

The Statutory Civil Service 360

The uncovenanted civil service 361

The police service 362

The public works department 362

The finance department 363

The forest service 364

Miscellaneous services 364

The Indian Medical Service 365

Regulations regarding admission to the Indian Civil Service . . . 365

The Public Services Conamission of 1886 366

The question of simultaneous examinations 368

Exchange compensation allowances 371

Police reform 372

Reorganisation of the public works department 373

Curzon's other reforms 374

Employment of military officers in civil offices 375

Decline in popularity of the services 375

Public Services Commission of 1912 376

CHAPTER XXI

LAW REFORM

By the late Sir Francis Du Prje Oldfield, LL.M., Professor of Jurisprudence in the University of Manchester, formerly a Puisne Judge of the High Court of Madras.

Confusion of the law 379

The Indian High Courts Act of 186 1 380

Later development of the courts 380

The need of codification . . . 381

The Indian law commissions 384

The Civil Procedure and Criminal Procedure Codes 385

Later codes

Revision of the codes 3^

Sources of the codes 387

The use of concrete examples 380

Hindu law 389

The Hindu joint family 390

Hindu testamentary powers 393

Other modifications of Hindu law 394

CONTENTS xix

CHAPTER XXII

THE INDIAN ARMY, 1858-1918

By Sir Wolseley Haig, K.C.I.E., C.S.L, C.M.G., C.B.E., M.A.

PAGE

Transference of the Company's armies . 395

The White Mutiny 395

Reconstitution of the sepoy forces 396

The local and general lists 396

Military establishments 397

Civil employment of military officers 397

Reduction of the Madras sepoy regiments 398

Disappearance of the presidency armies ....... 399

The reorganisation of 1907 400

The Imperial Service Troops 400

Indianisation 401

The reorganisation of 1922 401

FOREIGN POLICY, 1858— 1918

CHAPTER XXIII

CENTRAL ASIA

By H. H. DoDWELL, M.A.

London control of foreign policy 403

Dost Muhammad 404

The Afghan war of succession 405

The policy of masterly inactivity 406

Russian expansion 407

The purposes of Russia 408

Diplomatic discussions 409

Mayo and Sher 'Ali 409

Northbrook and Argyll 410

Seistan Boundary Commission 411

Non-recognition of the Afghan heir 411

Sher 'Ali and Kaufmann 412

Salisbury's policy 412

The occupation of Quetta 414

The proposed Afghan mission 415

The European situation 416

Stolietoff's mission 417

Chamberlain's mission . . . .417

Attitude of the home government 418

The Second Afghan War 419

Cavagnari's murder at Kabul 419

The reoccupation of Kabul 420

Abd-ur-iahman 420

Liberal policy 421

Ripon's settlement 421

Policy of the Second Afghan War 422

Russia and Mr Gladstone 422

XX CONTENTS

PAGE

The Russo- Afghan Boundary Commission 423

The Panjdeh incident 424

Delimitation of the northern Afghan frontier 426

Tibet 426

The Russian railways 428

Habib-ullah 428

The Anglo-Russian Entente 429

The Third Afghan War 430

CHAPTER XXIV

THE CONQUEST OF UPPER BURMA

By G. E. Harvey, I.C.S.

King Mindon 432

British agents in Burma 433

Yunnan trade 433

Withdrawal of the residency 434

Thibaw's accession 435

The massacre of the kinsmen 435

The attempts of rivals 436

The Franco-Burmese treaty 437

The Third Burmese War 438

The annexation of Upper Burma 439

The effects of the annexation 440

The government of Lower Burma 441

District administration 442

Recruitment among the Burmese 442

Judicial administration . . 443

Public works department 444

Education 444

Dacoity 445

Immigration 446

Crime 446

Employment of the Burmese 447

CHAPTER XXV

THE NORTH-WEST FRONTIER, 1843-1918

By C. C. Davies, Ph.D.

The Sind frontier 448

Jacob's policy 449

The Panjab frontier 449

Early Panjab policy and organisation 450

Dera Ghazi Khan, the meeting-place of the two systems .... 452

Reforms, 1872-S 453

Relations with Kalat 454

Sandcman and Baluchistan 455

Possible lines of defence 456

The Indus line 457

CONTENTS xxi

PAGE

The administrative and Durand lines 458

Quetta 458

Kandahar 459

Difficulties of tribal control 460

The forward policy 461

Influence of the amir 46 1

The Durand agreement 462

Chitral 463

Tribal risings of 1897 . 465

Curzon's policy 466

The North-West Frontier Province 467

Tribal customs and the jirga system 470

Land tenures 472

The arms traffic 473

The frontier during the late war 475

CHAPTER XXVI

INDIA AND THE WAR

By L. F. RusHBROOK Williams, M.A., Foreign Minister to H.H. the Maharaja of Patiala.

The functions of the Indian army 476

Attitude of the princes and the people 477

Failure to take advantage of the initial enthusiasm 478

Services overseas 479

Consequent difficulties of administration 480

Indian recruitment 481

Provision of officers and medical personnel 482

Munitions and supplies 483

Financial help 483

Revolutionary attempts 485

The crisis of 19 18 485

Attitude of the educated classes 486

The declaration of 19 1 7 488

The effects of the war 488

CHAPTER XXVII

THE RELATIONS OF THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA WITH THE INDIAN STATES, 1858-1918

By H. H. DoDWELL, M.A.

Position in 1858 489

Peculiarities of the Indian treaties 490

Their constructive interpretation 491

Their confirmation in 1858 492

Attitude of the early viceroys 493

The proclamation and the sanads of adoption . . . . . . 493

The position of the crown 494

xxii CONTENTS

PAGE

Kashmir 495

Successions in the Indian states 496

Their mihtary forces 497

Examples of internal interference : Alwar, Jabwa, Tank and Kalat . . 498

The case of Malhar Rao Gaekwar 499

The rendition of Mysore 501

Common economic interests 503

Obsolescence of the treaties 503

Gurzon's policy 504

Attitude of the princes 500

The Imperial Service Troops 507

The Ghamber of Princes 507

Minto's change of policy 509

POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT, 1858-1919

CHAPTER XXVIII

LOCAL SELF-GOVERNMENT

By J. H. Lindsay, M.A.

The ancient village self-government 511

Village organisation 512

The village headman 513

The village police 514

Famine relief 515

Rural boards 516

The Bengal ferry committees 516

Local committees elsewhere 517

Mayo's reforms 517

Ripon's reforms 518

The Bengal Local Self-Government Act 520

Comparative failure of the rural boards 52 1

The presidency towns 523

Justices of the peace 523

The question of conservancy 524

Changes, 1863-7 525

Reform in Bombay 526

Reform in Calcutta 527

Reform in Madras 528

Early committees in the district towns 529

The Municipal Act of 1850 530

Later provincial legislation 531

Ripon s reforms in the municipalities 534

Octroi duties 535

Non-official chairmen 537

CONTENTS xxiii

CHAPTER XXIX

THE NATIONAL CONGRESS AND EARLY

POLITICAL LITERATURE

By Sir Richard Burn, G.S.L

PAGE

Social reforms 538

Surendranath Banerjee . 538

The Ilbert Bill . . .539

The Arya Samaj and Theosophy 539

The National Congress . . 540

The Muslim attitude 541

Dufferin's policy 541

The Act of 1 892 543

The principle of election 545

CHAPTER XXX

THE RISE OF AN EXTREMIST PARTY

By Sir H. Verney Lovett, K.G.S.I.

The influence of the press 548

Reactionary Hinduism 549

B. G. Tilak 549

The murders at Poona 550

The partition agitation in Bengal 551

The appearance of terrorism 552

Unrest in the Panjab 553

The India House conspiracy . . 553

Attitude of the moderates 554

Restrictions on the press 554

The split of the congress . 555

The prosecution of Tilak 555

Outrages in Bengal 556

Gokhale accepts the reforms 557

Hindu character of the extremist movement 559

CHAPTER XXXI

THE REFORMS OF 1909 /

By Sir Richard Burn, G.S.I.

Lord Minto's appointment 560

Congress proposals 560

Discussions with Morley 561

Repressive measures 562

Minto's proposals 563

Morley's criticisms . . 565

The King's message of 1908 565

The Muslims demand separate representation 566

Discussions in parliament 567

Indian members of council . . . . 569

Method of election 570

Budget procedure , , 572

xxiv CONTENTS

CHAPTER XXXII

POLITICAL MOVEMENTS, 1909-1917

By Sir Richard Burn, C.S.I.

PAGE

Further restrictions on the press . . 574

Political crime 575

The Delhi Durbar . . . . . 575

The change of capital and revocation of the partition of Bengal . . 576

Muslim dissatisfaction 576

Attempt on Lord Hardinge and the spread of revolutionary crime . . 578

Working of the new councils 579

Proposed executive councils in the United Provinces 579

Indians in South Africa 581

Revolutionary attempts during the war 582

The Khilafat agitation 583

The Home Rule League 584

Criticism of the Press Act 584

The Rowlatt Committee and consequent legislation 585

CHAPTER XXXIII THE REFORMS OF 1919 By Sir Richard Burn, C.S.I.

Sir S. P. Sinha's views 587

Lord Chelmsford's questions 587

The Declaration of 1 91 7 . 589

The Commonwealth of India scheme 589

Mr Curtis 's activities 591

Montagu's visit to India 592

The Montagu-Chelmsford Report 592

The heads of provinces scheme 594

The Southborough Committee 595

TheActofi9i9 595

Dyarchy and finance 596

Changes in the Government of India 598

The Council of State 599

The size of the new councils 599

Communal representation 600

Position of the secretary of state 601

The high commissioner for India 602

Rules under the act 602

Importance of the reforms 603

Bibliographies 605

Chronological Table . 635

Index 639

CHAPTER I

IMPERIAL LEGISLATION AND THE SUPERIOR GOVERNMENTS, 1818-1857

XHE imperial legislation relating to India in the first half of the nineteenth century is above all remarkable for the consistency of its course and the steady development of the policy which it was designed to promote. From the great India act of 1784 down to the statute which at last in 1858 abolished the administrative functions of the East India Company, there was a gradual, persistent evolution, in- spired by a common group of ideas, directed to a common object, and founded on principles in origin free alike from heady enthusiasm and obstinate fear of reformation. The principles were derived from Burke, but greatly modified by Whig traditions. Burke, of course, though long a follower of the party, had never been a real Whig. He lacked the background the orderly conduct of a great estate which was essential to the formation of the true Whig character. His zeal and sympathy were not balanced by the practical experience of directing men and managing great affairs. He was a poor judge of character, unable to detect the shallowness of Francis, and a poor judge of events, unable to gauge the nature of Indian developments. Neither his mistaken enthusiasm, nor Fox's party spirit, nor Sheridan's venal rhetoric, was in fact capable of forming a system on which the nation's Indian affairs might well and wisely be controlled. That was left to men who, no longer of the party, had carried with them much more of its spirit than remained behind. The ideas and purposes of the legislation carried through by Pitt and Dundas and Buckinghamshire have already been described. ^ But it will be convenient here to begin with the ideas of 181 3, for these appear and reappear not only in legislative principles but also in the actual administration of the period, so that they form the most appropriate introduction to the present volume.

The most notable expression given to the ideas current in 181 3 was assuredly the great speech delivered by Lord Grenville,^ to which even forty years later men turned back for inspiration and guidance. Like his successors, he was struck by the strangeness of the task. "On precedents we can here have no reliance. The situation is new; the subject on which we are to legislate knows no example. Our former measures would be deceitful guides." Nor had the time come for any final regulation of this most perplexing matter. Three points, he

^ Vide V, 313 sgq.y supra. 2 Hansard, xxv, yiosqq.

2 LEGISLATION AND SUPERIOR GOVERNMENTS

said, required special attention. The first was the need of declaring the sovereignty of the British crown in India, as

the orUy solid basis on which we can either discharge our duties or maintain our

rights The British crown is de facto sovereign in India. How it became so it is

needless to enquire. This sovereignty cannot now be renounced without still greater evils, both to that country and to this, than even the acquisition of power has ever

yet produced. It must be maintained That sovereignty which we hesitate to

assert, necessity compels us to exercise.

But it should be exercised first to provide for the welfare of the Indian population, next, but ranking far below the first, to promote the interests of Great Britain. In Grenville's eyes there was no conflict between the two. "Pursued with sincerity and on the principles of a just and liberal policy, there exists between them a close connection, a necessary and mutual dependence." Oppression must be prevented, light and knowledge must be diffused. The government must be separated "from all intermixture with mercantile interests". But it would be fatal to the constitution of Great Britain if the Company's patronage were ever vested in the crown or exercised by any political party. Perhaps, he suggested, writers might be chosen "by free com- petition and public examination from our great schools and univer- sities".

The act then passed was far less comprehensive than the speaker desired. The Company was again entrusted for a further period of twenty years with the administration of the Indian territories. Its trade was continued. But it lost the monopoly of the Indian trade; British-born subjects were to be admitted under less arbitrary re- strictions; the sovereignty of the British crown was asserted; and provision was made for the development of an educational policy. Then with an easier conscience the legislature abandoned for twenty years the difficult and unfamiliar study of Indian problems. One might suppose that the words of Grenville had been forgotten. But it was not so. The general ideas which he expressed continued to dominate the minds of legislators not only in 1833, but in 1853 as well. The sovereignty of the crown was not only asserted but was reinforced. The Company was maintained in its functions, but its structure was transformed, and its mercantile interests eliminated. Great efforts were made to improve the administration in India; and at last the method of selecting the administrative service first advocated by Grenville was adopted.

But this consistency of effort exhibited also the defects of its qualities. Admirable as were the idesis of Grenville in their time and place, they were liable to exhaustion by the development of affairs. The time was to come when they would be inadequate guides, when they would need to be replaced by a new set of ideas, when the changes intro- duced by this consistent policy would require recognition. But un- luckily the act of 1853 exhibits no inclination to set off on a new

THE REFORMS OF 1833 3

departure. Its changes were few, stereotyped, imperfect. The motive powers of the ideas underlying it were in fact exhausted, and no new ideas were as yet powerful enough to take their place.

Neither of the acts of 1833 and 1853 was in any way intended to be definitive. The need of caution was still deeply felt. As Macaulay said in the debates on the bill of 1833, "We are trying. . .to give a good government to a people to whom we cannot give a free govern- ment". Even James Mill, that zealot of representative institutions, had declared them to be utterly out of the question. Therefore

we have to engraft on despotism the natural fruits of liberty. In these circumstances, Sir, it behoves us to be cautious even to the verge of timidity. . .